http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/issue/feed Jurnal Airaha 2020-05-26T00:15:54+00:00 Mohammad Sayuti mohsayut@gmail.com Open Journal Systems Jurnal Airaha adalah Jurnal yang membahas tentang Teknik Penangkapan Ikan, Pemanfaatan Sumberdaya Perikanan, Ilmu Kelautan, Mekanisasi Perikanan, dan Teknik Budidaya Perikanan http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/103 Analysis of Heat Transfer With Fresh Water System Electric Engine Generator 2020-03-11T13:10:57+00:00 Kaminton Tambunan kamintonsisingamangaraja@gmail.com Zainal Fanani kamintonsisingamangaraja@gmail.com Muji Prihajatno prihajatno.m16@gmail.com <p><em>Generator engine is a propulsion that generates power to run a power plant. Heat control on the engine generator with a fresh water cooling system serves to stability maintain of the temperature engine. The water cooling system to absorb heat from combustion process heat transfer analysis is carried out based on measurements and calculations to find out optimally the work of the generator engine. Experimental research methods are carried out by to many cooling water drums easly cooling water, and increasing volume of cooling water. Based on the results of experimental analysis and calculations that the standard cooling at 1500 rpm an average Q<sub>cooling</sub> = 79,979.23 Watt; and the percentage of heat absorption = 14.04%. Cooling with &nbsp;drum cooling at 1500 rpm an average Q<sub>cooling</sub> = 32,737.60 Watt; and the percentage of heat absorption = 41.44%. Cooling with drum cooling and add of cooling water volum at 1500 rpm average Q<sub>cooling</sub> = 27,350.40 Watt; and the percentage of heat absorption = 75.79%. The used of drum cooling and addition of cooling water volum will optimalized the cooling rate.</em></p> 2019-08-09T14:45:20+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/114 Utilisation of Powered Solar Refrigeration Unit to Maintain the Quality of Fish Captured on Small Scale Fishermen 2020-03-11T13:10:54+00:00 Rahmad Hadi rahmad2002@gmail.com Apih Suparlin rahmad2002@gmail.com Dian Sutono rahmad2002@gmail.com Terry Yuliardi rahmad2002@gmail.com <p><em>Keeping all catches is an important part of fishing activities after catching with the aim of maintaining catches that have high selling prices. Good handling of fish after the ship is taken is one way to get good results. Handling can be in the form of maintaining the temperature of the catch. Regarding to the results of the 2017 applied research carried out related to ships and fishing gear in the coastal Karawang district, it is denied that fisheries in this area are generally very low in terms of the production of fish caught which is poor quality provided direct impact on the sale price of the catch. Based on this, an easy cooling engine is needed that does not burden the operations. Therefore the purpose of this study is to make a solar powered refrigeration unit (solar energy), knowing the performance of a mini refrigeration unit that has been made (COP) and finds out the quality of fish stored in accordance with organoleptic observation. The results showed that the mini refrigeration units made worked well with performance (COP) of 3.51 mean mini refrigeration units that have a good efficiency above 1. Moreover, the fish quality was stored in the mini-refrigerators had organoleptic values ​​according to the standard food is an average of 8.</em></p> 2019-08-30T09:12:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/113 The Effort for Minimizing Exploitation Impact of Tiger Prawn (Penaeus monodon, Fabricus 1798) With Captured Size Determination in Tarakan Water, North Borneo 2020-03-11T13:10:51+00:00 Andri Warsa andriwarsa@yahoo.co.id Amran Ronny Syam andriwarsa@yahoo.co.id Duranta Diandria Kembaren andriwarsa@yahoo.co.id <p><em>The Tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon, </em>Fabricus<em> 1798) was dominantly captured at Tarakan waters, North Borneo. The captured activity in this area was done annually and shown over the exploitation rate. Its need an effort to minimizing exploitation impact for sustainability management. Legal size determination is one effort for resources management. The aim of this paper was to the determination of legal size as an effort for sustainability management of tiger prawn at Tarakan Waters, North Borneo. Population parameters of tiger prawn were used in this paper from the article was published in 2013 and 2018. Tiger Prawn samples collected from fishermen captured was landed at Lingkas Ujung (2012) and Selimit Pantai (2016) landing site, Tarakan, North Borneo. Result of the research shown length at first captured (Lc) of tiger prawn is 33.6 mm and smaller than a length at first mature (Lm) is 40.7 mm. The tiger prawn size (Lc_opt) for exploitation 47-50 mm. it was bigger than Lm and give optimal economic value.</em></p> 2019-09-03T08:35:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/115 Fish Aggregation Devices (FAD) Distribution at the Purse Seine Fishing Ground in the Indian Ocean 2020-03-11T13:10:48+00:00 Deni Sarianto denisarianto45@gmail.com Djunaidi denisarianto45@gmail.com Kadi Istrianto denisarianto45@gmail.com <p><em>The Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) have been utilized for a long time by the purse seine fishermen in Sibolga. This research was aimed at mapping the devices operating by the Sibolga fishermen in the Indian Ocean and identifying the dominant captured fish surrounding the set devices. It was carried out in the Nusantara Fishing Port of Sibolga, North Sumatera Province – Indonesia. The results of this research demonstrate that the FADs are set in three fishing grounds in the Indian Ocean of Indonesia namely (1) the waters surrounding Nias Island, (2) Exclusive Economic Zone of Indonesia, and (3) the waters surrounding Mentawai Island. Further, based on the species, the capturedfish dominantly in the surrounding set FADs are skipjack tuna (1,114.196 tons), short pectoral Mackerel (</em><em>338.344 </em><em>ton</em><em>s), shortfin scad Mackerel (217.505</em><em> ton</em><em>s), Mackerel Tuna (165.67 tons), Sardine (148.786 tons), and Yellowfin Tuna (78.175 tons). Overall, this research infers that the captured fishusing purse seine fishing gear are dominantly represented by the small and medium sizes. Moreover, the potential fishing grounds for Sibolga fishermen are located in the surrounding waters of Nias Island and Mentawai Island. </em></p> 2019-09-09T12:59:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/111 The Suitability of Fish Handling on Pole and Line 2020-03-11T13:08:51+00:00 Dheni Rossarie dheni.rossarie@gmail.com Yudhomenggolo Sastro Darmanto darmanto_thp@undip.ac.id Fronthea Swastawati frothea_thp@yahoo.com <p><em>Fish is a important sea catch, in addition to being the main source of protein, it is also the main livelihood for the fishermen. The handling of fish on board includes all actions starting from the initial to the final stage of storage. The decreasing quality and the high post-harvest damage are mostly affected by the fishing method, bad handling, the length of supply chain and the unavailability of handling facility. The government has put a high attention on the quality assurance of the fishery products by appointing the Decree of the Minister of Maritime and Fisheries Affairs Number 52A/Kepmen-KP/2013 on the Requirements for Quality Assurance and Security of Fishery Products.This research was conducted in&nbsp; the pier of PT Citra Raja Ampat Canning in Sorong City, the dock of pole and line ship. </em>The method used in this research was the descriptive method and survey. The sampling method was using the purposive sampling<em>. The result showed the suitability of the handling of skipjack in pole and line ship with the policy of quality management arranged in Ministrial Decree (KEPMEN-KP 52A/2013) from the element including the facility, equipment, handling method on the ship, and the role of the crew, in the ship 1, ship 2 and ship 3 was 61%, so it can be concluded that the handling on the pole and line ship was less than the standard.</em></p> 2019-09-10T10:08:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/109 Pathogen Bacteria Resistance Inoculated Bakasang in Different Environmental Conditions 2020-03-11T13:08:49+00:00 Indah Widyayanti indahwidyayanti@gmail.com Melisa Masengi indahwidyayanti83@gmail.com <p><em>Bakasang is a fermented product, usually made from tuna fish offal or small fish such as anchovies and sardines, traditionally processed. This study aims to determine the resistance of pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus which are inoculated in bakasang under different environmental conditions. Tests were carried out under different environmental conditions, such as pH 4.90, 5.05, 6.02 and 7.0, inokulum concentrations of 10<sup>4</sup> and 10<sup>8</sup> cells / ml, age of pathogenic bacteria &nbsp;culture 18 and 96 hours, temperature of 62 and 72<sup>0</sup>C, and concentrations of bakasang: water (100 : 0, 50:50, and 25: 75). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and t test. The results showed that pH 4.90 and 5.05 had a significant effect on the growth of S.typhi and S. aureus bacteria inoculated in bakasang (P &lt;0.05). Concentration of inokulum 10<sup>4 </sup>and 10<sup>8</sup>. cells / ml, age of pathogenic bacteria culture 18 and 96 hours and concentration of bakasang: water gave no significant effect on the growth of pathogenic bacteria inoculated in the pair (P&gt; 0.05). The results of the heat resistance of inoculated bacteria in the bakasang showed that the heating temperature of 62 and 72 ºC had a significant influence on the growth of pathogenic bacteria S. aureus and S. typhi which were inoculated in the pair (P &lt;0.05).</em></p> 2019-10-29T14:25:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/116 Bioeconomic Analysis Skipjack Efforts in Sustainable Fisheries Resource Management 2020-03-11T13:08:46+00:00 Rasdam Rasdam andamjordan717@gmail.com Mustasim Mustasim mustasim@kkp.go.id <p><em>One of the potential of marine products Sorong big enough to be developed in fisheries is Skipjack fish. This study aims to determine the production of maximum sustainable yields (MSY), the level of economic benefits (MEY) and the utilization rate Skipjack fish. The method used stratified random sampling and that became the sample is obtained from the Skipjack fish catches landed in Sorong. The results were obtained MSY amounted to 5,006,321.52 tons / year to an effort of 40 vessels / year while MEY to fish Skipjack 4,999,399.970 tons / year and Effort Maximum Economic Yield (E<sub>MEY</sub>) 38 vessels / year with a utilization rate has exceeded the amount haul allowed (JTB) that is 80% of the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) which is equal to 106.88%. The result of the calculation of a long relationship forked and weight of Skipjack fish obtained equation W = 0.1931 L <sup>2.4447</sup>. Value b = 2.4447, (b less than 3), the pattern of growth Skipjack fish landed in Sorong Regency is Allometric negative. Conditions Skipjack been over exploited fisheries, the management system in accordance with the fisheries Skipjack in Sorong based on the biological aspects include: (1). Setting the fishing season (2). The closure of fishing grounds in certain seasons. (3). Reduction arrest quotas. (4) .Control fishing effort.</em></p> 2019-11-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/128 The Characteristic of Purified Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) Fish Using Active Charcoal and Bentonite on Fillet Waste by Product of PT Aquafarm Nusantara 2020-03-11T13:08:41+00:00 Sumartini Tinny.sumardi@gmail.com Supriyanto sumartini@politeknikkpdumai.ac.id Pudji Hastuti sumartini@politeknikkpdumai.ac.id <p><em>PT Aquafarm Nusantara is known as a modern industry in fish processing produced Tilapia Fillet as the main product that is routinely exported to several countries. Therefore, there are still some by products left such as bones, scales, skin, the content of belly, and head. This study conducted aimed to seek the characteristics and the quality of fish oil after purification. The method used was an experimental laboratory using eight different treatments on pale dose (charcoal) 1%, 2%, 3%, bentonite 1%, 2%, 3%, active charcoal 2% : 1%, and bentonite:active charcoal 1%, 2%. Parameters used are moisture content, melting point, free fatty acid, peroxide and iodin value, brightness and clarity. The best result of parameter analysis was showed by combining betonit: actice charcoal (2%:1%), it showed the moisture content 0.05 ± 0,02%, iodin number 121,87±2,55, peroxide number 7,92±0,00%, FFA 0,23±0,05, brightness 55,67±0,09% (L*),-1,09±0,03 (a*), 23,36 ±0.03(b*), and clarity 82,79 ± 0.51%T. </em></p> 2019-12-10T09:35:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/118 Bioencappsulation Carotenoids on Skeletonema Costatum and Artemia for the Growth of Brackish Water of Nila Larvae 2020-03-11T13:08:43+00:00 Ernawati ernawati190@gmail.com Hamsir Hamsir ernawati190@gmail.com <p><em>The research aimed at knowing and determining the proper dosage of carotenoids to the treatment of Skeletonema costatum and artemia for growth rate of the brackish water larvae. This research used Complete Random Design (CRD) with 4 treatments of carotenoid dosage (0, 10, 15 and 20 mg/L of media water) and each three replications. Larvae brackish water were reared during 30 days in 50 L silinder plastic in 12 units equipped by filter system. Giving 300.000 ind/L Skeletonema costatum and 500.000 ind/L nauplius Artemia was frequency twice a day such as at 08.00 and 17.00 o’clock WITA. The result showed that the highest Skeletonema costatum carotenoid content like 55,47 ppm was in the treatment of 20 mg/L dosage, the highest artemia carotenoid content was 7,181 ppm was in the treatment of 20 mg/L dosage and the highest larvae tilapia of brackish water carotenoid content like 2,33 ppm was in the treatment of 15 mg/L dosage. The growth rate the highest 1,65 cm and 0,2483% each contained of 10 mg/L dosage. Dose of 10 – 15 mg/L carotenoids were able to be absorbed and converted into vitamin A by the larvae so as to increase of growth rate of larvae nila of barckhish water.</em></p> 2019-12-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/138 Characteristic of Streptococcus agalactiae NP104O, S01-196-16 and NMbO Isolates Causes Streptococcosis in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 2020-03-11T13:08:38+00:00 Achmad Suhermanto ac.suhermanto.apsor@gmail.com Herdianto T achmadsuhermanto@kkp.go.id Suhermin achmadsuhermanto@kkp.go.id Ridwan achmadsuhermanto@kkp.go.id Nurmawanti I achmadsuhermanto@kkp.go.id <p><em>Failure of tilapia culture in Indonesia in the hatchery, nursery and rearing segments mostly is caused by Streptococcus agalactiae infection. This study aimed to detect the characteristics of bacteria S. agalactiae NP104O, S01-196-16 and NMbO which infect tilapia in aquaculture. Bacterial isolation was carried out during an outbreak of streptococcosis, further analysis based on morphological and biochemical characters. The pathogenicity test was done by injecting bacteria intraperitoneally at a dose of 107 CFU fish-1. The results showed that all isolates was cocci, gram positive, negative catalase and negative oxidase. The three isolates had different concentrations and growth patterns until end of the observation. Pathogenicity test results obtained all fish injected with NP104O, S01-196-16 and NMbO bacteria appeared as clinical symptoms of melanosis, unilateral or bilateral exophthalmos, turbidity in the eye, curved vertebrae forming the letter C, erratic, and whirling. Hopefully, the results of this study can be used as a reference for prevention of streptococcosis infections in tilapia.</em></p> 2019-12-10T12:56:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/127 Fatty Acid Identification of Tilapia Fish Oil (Oreochromis niloticus), Purification using Activated Charcoal and Bentonite combination 2020-03-11T13:09:46+00:00 Sumartini Tinny.sumardi@gmail.com Supriyanto sumartini@politeknikkpdumai.ac.id Pudji Hastuti sumartini@politeknikkpdumai.ac.id <p>The fishery processing industry activities generally produce waste that is thrown away so that it does not experience reuse. The components of fish waste consist of the head, tail-bones, skin, and stomach contents that can be used as fish oil. The one of the problem in the use fish oil as a raw material for intermediate products is the difficulty in making a comparison ratio between fish oil and other ingredients, so we need to know the composition of fatty acids as a reference formulation for the application of waste utilization of tilapia oil. The method used is a quantitative method that is identifying fatty acids in tilapia oil. Data analysis uses Gas Chromatography (GC) as chromatogram data. Based on the results of the analysis that the composition of fatty acids from waste tilapia oil as follows: the dominant saturated fatty acids are palmitic fatty acids as much as 20.96%, the dominant monounsaturated fatty acids are oleic fatty acids as much as 22.63%, and fatty acids the dominant polyunsaturated fatty acid is linoleic as much as 16.77%. While the fatty acid components of EPA and DHA are found in very small quantities which is less than 0.01%.</p> 2019-12-11T06:51:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/133 The Effectiveness of Giving Pellets Made from Fish Waste to the Growth of Catfish (Clarias garipienus) 2020-03-11T13:09:41+00:00 Ahmad - Fahrizal a.fahrizal.ab@gmail.com Ratna Ratna ratnathoriq@gmail.com <p><em>The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the provision of pellets based on fish waste from TPI Jembatan Puri, Sorong City on the growth of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used in this study is an experimental method including a test of feed to which includes 5 treatments and 3 replications. Fish meal making and fish waste material from PPI. The results of this study were preceded by previous studies that developed feed made from fisheries waste into pellets that were tested biologically to catfish, beginning with weighing the fish first as preliminary data for fish growth and then also measuring water quality as a factor affecting fish growth in a way live. The results of the study showed that the highest growth rate, the highest was obtained in treatment A (0.73% / day), for the highest feed efficiency in Treatment A, 1.49% for the best FCR, namely Treatment B, 0.28, and The best SR in treatment D was 93%. The conclusion from the results of the study showed that the growth of catfish in the nursery stage was quite effective for the growth of catfish by using fish-based feed even though the results obtained were not significantly affected (P &lt;0.05) for each treatment using different feeds between commercial feed (pellets) and feed made from fish waste.</em></p> 2019-12-11T07:43:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/124 Study of Abrasion and Sedimentation by Remote Sensing Technology at Karawang Beach 2020-03-11T13:09:44+00:00 Roberto Patar Pasaribu roberto_pasa@yahoo.com Liliek Soeprijadi roberto_pasa@yahoo.com Dian Sutono roberto_pasa@yahoo.com <p><em>The existence of the coastline in the northern part of Karawang Regency is very worrying due to abrasion and sedimentation where sea water that was far from the side of the road is now on the edge of the road and several areas along the coast have been damaged affected by the abrasion. The process of abrasion and sedimentation can be monitored by using Remote Sensing technology, which is technology that uses electro magnetic waves to produce images obtained from sensors carried by satellites with the physical properties of objects observed on the surface of the earth. The purpose of this study was to determine the process of abrasion and sedimentation that occurred in the Karawang regency coast by using remote sensing technology. Based on the results of data processing and analysis conducted in 6 sub-districts along the Karawang coast, abrasion and sedimentation have occurred, where 4 villages experienced abrasion while 2 villages experienced sedimentation. The largest area formed due to abrasion occurred in Sedari village covering 166,802 hectares and the largest area formed by sedimentation occurred in Muara Cilamaya village of 276,318 hectares. The fastest speed of abrasion process occurred in Sukajaya village by 10.00 meters / year while the fastest sedimentation process was in Muara Cimalaya village at 4.50 meters / year.</em></p> 2019-12-11T07:14:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/120 The Study of the Use of Fishing Cantrang in Fisheries Management Area of the Republic of Indonesia 2020-03-11T13:09:38+00:00 Sepri sepri.sumbung31@gmail.com Slamet Budi Prayitno sepri.papua31@gmail.com <p><em>Utilization of fish resources in Fisheries Management Area of the Republic of Indonesia, in some areas are in the fully exploited status&nbsp;can not be&nbsp;separated from the use of fishing gear that is not environmentally friendly and&nbsp;modifications&nbsp;to fishing gear.&nbsp;Fishing equipment potentially damaging marine life and the ecosystem is one of these fish is&nbsp;cantrang.&nbsp;Net withdrawal causes agitation bottom, causing a significant impact on the underwater ecosystem.&nbsp;This research is to see and study the problem of banning&nbsp;cantrang. Normative juridical approach, using secondary data, analyzed qualitatively and using deductive method to draw conclusions.&nbsp;Cantrang&nbsp;be categorized fishing gear damaging to the environment caused by the change of the structure of the fishing gear and operating techniques are not&nbsp;appropriate.&nbsp;Problems gear&nbsp;cantrang&nbsp;not lie in the appliance, but at the&nbsp;operational.</em></p> 2019-12-13T08:55:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/137 Exploration Determination of Traditional Bubu Fishermen Fisheries Fishing Location Asilulu Village Using Detection Fish Finder Technology 2020-05-26T00:15:54+00:00 Agung agung@unidar.ac.id Achmad Jais Ely jais75.ely@gmail.com <p><em>The objective of this reserach was exploration to determine the location of fishing for for traditional Bubu fishermen by utilizing fishfinder technology. The method used in this research is descriptive exploration, obtained from interviews and field surveys. The sample locations are determined according to the distribution of fishing locations. Currently the traditional bubu fishermen in the village of Assilulu still use traditional tools as a pot in determining and finding the presence of fish to be caught, so that the productivity of the fish produced is not optimal, even though the source of fish in the waters of Assilulu is very abundant. So we need tools that can meet the productivity of responsiveness. Exploration results from 6 different locations with depth variations of 30-60 meters show comparisons from the point of view of fishermen and the use of fishfinder technology there are very different observations. the level of species diversity is in the position of the moderate index with a range of 1 ≤ H ’≤ 3. While in the uniformity index, all regions are included in the index high uniformity criteria between 0.73 - 0.82 and 0.78 - 0.92. For the dominance index, the index range is between 0.142 - 0.306 and 0.125 - 0.178. Then all fishing areas have low dominance, stable, and no ecological pressure. Functional fish diagrams show that the highest target fish fall at the pulpit and Nusi Hena fishing locations, with a percentage value of 19% each.</em></p> 2019-12-13T09:46:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha http://jurnalairaha.org/index.php/airaha/article/view/135 Comparison of Marine Debris and Land Waste in Conservation Tourism Locations 2020-03-11T13:09:33+00:00 Muhammad Irpan Sejati Tassakka sejatiirpan@gmail.com Muhammad Musrianton muhammad.musrianton@kkp.go.id Alfi K. Admaja alfi.admaja@kkp.go.id Indah Alsita indah.alsita@kkp.go.id Kezia Gloria Apriliana Runtu kezia.runtu@kkp.go.id Normayasari normayasari.normayasari@kkp.go.id <p><em>Waha Tourism Community (WTC) is a conservation based tourism and managed by community. The increase of tourist activity is predicted will impact to increase of waste arise. Moreover, the coastal of WTC often gets marine debris that drifts away from other regions at a certain time. The aims of this paper are to know the comparison of waste generation from marine debris and the mainland, also to recommend the alternative of sustainable waste management system in WTC. The measurement of waste arise and composition using the CSIRO method, while the analysis method using IWM2. The results from the research showed that the amount of waste arise from marine debris is more than the mainland with ratio 5:1 (45,8 : 9,1 kg/day). The composition of marine debris consist of 81,6% organics; 5,5% Styrofoams; 3,1% rigid plastics; 3,5% soft plastics; 2,6% metals; 0,4 % glasses; 1,4% rubbers; 0,3% fabrics; 1,1% papers; dan 0,5% another waste. The composition of mainland waste are 63,6% organics, 13,2% rigid plastics; 9,9% soft plastics; 2,2% metals; 2,2 % glasses; 4,1% rubbers; 2,7% papers; and 2,1% another waste. Based on the waste composition in WTC, the most suitable waste management system is the recycling process, biological processing, and bringing the residue to the landfill, which can reduce the air emissions and water pollutions respectively by </em>1.570.398<em> gr CO<sub>2</sub>/year; </em>1.571.177<em> gr CH<sub>4</sub>/year; </em>34.601.010<em> gr GWP/year; </em>7.088<em> gr BOD/year; </em>12.146<em> gr COD/year; and </em>792<em> gr SS/year.</em></p> 2019-12-13T09:52:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Airaha